We use many modern technologies for communication in the modern world. Of these the most important one is the optical fiber communication. It refers to the medium and also the technology related to the transmission of data as light pulses on a glass or plastic wire or fiber. optical fiber carries rather more data than typical copper wire and is generally not subject to electromagnetic interference and the need to retransmit signals. Most of the telephone companies are currently using optical fiber for long-distance communication.
Transmission on optical fiber wire needs repeaters at distance intervals. The glass fiber needs additional protection within an outer cable than copper. For these reasons and because the installation of any new wiring is labor-intensive, few communities however have optical fiber wires or cables from the phone company’s branch office to local customers.
There are many advantages for fiber optics over traditional metal communication lines. They are:
- Have a far larger bandwidth than metal cables. this implies that they will carry more information.
- Are less affected by interference than metal cables
- Are thinner and lighter than metal wires.
- Data are often transmitted digitally (the natural type for computer data) rather than analogically.
Optical fiber consists of a core, cladding, and a protecting outer coating, that guide light through the core by total internal reflection. The core, and the cladding with higher-refractive-index, is usually made from high-quality silica glass, though they’ll both be made from plastic as well. An optical fiber will break if bent too sharply.
In recent years it’s become apparent that fiber-optics are steadily replacing copper wire as an appropriate means of communication signal transmission. They measure the long distances between local phone systems as well as providing the backbone for several network systems. Different system users embody cable TV services, office buildings, university campuses, electric utility corporations, and industrial plants.
The light pulses travel through the fiber optic cable due to the phenomenon of total internal reflection. This principle states that when a light wave greater than critical angle enters the cable; the light cannot get out of the cable; instead it bounces. When this principle is applied in the development of the optic fiber strand. It is able to transmit information through the fiber lines in the form of light pulses.
The fiber optic technology is commonly used in local area networks. Also the traditional telephone companies are substituting telephone lines with optic fiber. In the near future most of the communication systems use fiber optics.3